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Published onAug 25, 2021

Appendix 1

Chronology of White Supremacy in the United States

The story of race is the story of labor. We have “let” folks into the family of “white” as we need their numbers and no longer need to exploit their labor.
—Racial Equity Institute


Jamestown, Virginia, established as the first permanent English colony in the New World.


Contrary to the Disney myth of romantic love, John Rolfe married Pocahontas for land she owned from her father, Powhattan, chief of communities in Tsenacommacah.


First Africans kidnapped and brought to the North American colonies. A Dutch ship intercepted a Spanish ship carrying kidnapped Africans. The Dutch decided to bring them to sell to the North American colonies to fill their labor shortage.


In re Negro John Punch was a court case that legalized the disparate sentences defendants may receive along racial lines. The case centered on three indentured servants (African, Dutch, and Scottish) who ran away and were eventually caught. The African, John Punch, was sentenced to lifetime servitude, while the others received four additional years of indentured servitude.


Bacon’s Rebellion was a populist rebellion by poor whites, Africans, and Native Americans against the Virginia colonial elites. After the rebels won three battles, colonial reinforcements from England arrived and put down the rebellion.


House of Burgesses of the Virginia colony debated “What Is a White Man?” and the notion of a “white race” that would control power and access to land and wealth. White men were defined as not having African or Native American blood, except for Rolfe and Pocahontas’s male descendants (“the Pocahontas Exception”). This social construct became foundational for the colonization of land that would become the United States.


The House of Burgesses passed legislation that provided “freedom dues” to all white indentured servants at the end of their indentured tenure. To a man: ten bushels of corn, thirty shillings (or equivalent in goods), and one musket; to a woman: fifteen bushels of corn and forty shillings (or equivalent in goods). It also provided the court’s protection of legal rights. This would increase the cost of indentured servants and make slavery more economical.


The Declaration of Independence excluded enslaved Blacks, Native Americans, indentured white servants, and women when it stated that “all men are created equal . . . with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”


The Land Ordinance Act allowed sale of lots of one square mile (640 acres) for $1/acre to white people.


The US Constitution included a compromise between representation by population and representation by taxes: “Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to the respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons” (emphasis added).


Johann Friedrich Blumenbach and Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, used the study of human skulls to develop a false science that divided the human species into a hierarchy:

  • “Caucasoid” → Caucasus Mountains → White

  • “Mongoloid” → Mongolia → Asian/Yellow

  • “Australoid” → Australia → Aborigine/Red/Brown

  • “Negroid” → no geographic basis → Black


The Naturalization Act of 1790 stated that “free white persons” (i.e., free of any debts) of “good moral character” (i.e., Christian) are eligible to become US citizens but “the right of citizenship shall not descend to persons whose fathers have never been resident in the United States.”


The Land Ordinance Act cut lots in half (320 acres) at $1/acre.


The Indian Removal Act authorized the president to “negotiate” (seize) and “exchange” (remove) Native Americans from their traditional and sacred lands to “Indian Territory” (now Oklahoma).


To end the Mexican–American War, the United States and the Mexican Republic signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It promised to protect the land and culture of Mexicans living in the ceded territory (Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, Utah, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming). Congress required Mexicans to submit in US courts that they legally own the ceded land.


The Homestead Act sold—to citizens only (see 1790 entry)—quarter-section lots (160 acres) of western land (formerly Indian land) at $1.25/acre with the provision that homesteaders tend the land for five years within ten years. The last person to pay for land was in 1988; 85 million acres was sold to European homesteaders.


The Emancipation Proclamation declared that “all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government . . . will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons . . . in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom . . . all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive Government . . . will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages . . . that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service. . . .”


The Thirteenth Amendment was passed by Congress and ratified by the states. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” “Black codes,” laws that were specifically targeted at former slaves (e.g., being unemployed, loitering), began to appear and enabled former owners to have access to free labor through convict leasing.


The Fourteenth Amendment granted citizenship: “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”


The Fifteenth Amendment stated that the “right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”


Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act forbidding all Chinese immigration to the United States; this was the first immigration legislation that named a specific nationality.


The Dawes Severalty Act allowed the US government to take and divide traditional Native American lands held in traditional communal manner into lots for individual Native Americans to own as private property.


In Plessy v. Ferguson, the US Supreme Court upheld the ruling of a New ­Orleans judge and the Louisiana Supreme Court that the Louisiana law requiring “separate-but-equal” railcars for Blacks and whites was constitutional. The equal protection clause did not mean to discount difference in color or to force social (rather than political) equality.


The Flexner Report—written by a nondoctor and supported by the Rockefeller Foundation—standardized medical school curriculum and closed five of the seven Black medical schools.


In Takao Ozawa v. the United States, the Supreme Court ruled that, while Ozawa might be assimilated and have white skin, he was not Caucasian and therefore not eligible for citizenship.


In United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme Court revoked Thind’s US citizenship on the basis that, although Indians might be considered Caucasian by some anthropologists, Indians were not considered Caucasian in the “common understanding, by unscientific men.”


New Deal legislation created work programs to end unemployment and provided loans ($120 billion). Southern states insisted that local officials control the distribution. The Home Owners Loan Corporation (holc), to help homeowners and stabilize banks, created maps of neighborhoods based on racial population. Predominantly Black neighborhoods were colored red and coded as “undesirable,” which limited investment. In addition, holc lent none of its roughly $1 million in loans to Black homeowners (leading to higher proportions of Black homeowners losing their homes during the remainder of the Depression).


Part of New Deal legislation, the National Housing Act of 1934 aimed to make housing and mortgages more affordable, stop bank foreclosures on homes, and created the Federal Housing Administration (fha) which condoned holc’s redlined maps of neighborhoods; redlining continued the systemic denial of financial services (e.g., housing loans, public funds for infrastructure) to these neighborhoods despite similarities in income, education, etc. fha’s manuals and practices encouraged planners, builders, and lenders to promote homogenous (race and class) neighborhoods, disproportionately concentrating Blacks into substandard housing.


The Social Security Act provided pensions for old age and benefits and assistance for the poor, survivors, and the unemployed but excluded agricultural and domestic service workers, predominantly Black occupations.


The Fair Labor Standards Act established a minimum wage and maximum work hours and abolished child labor but excluded agricultural and domestic service workers, predominantly Black occupations.


The GI Bill of Rights (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act)—whose benefits were reduced or denied to Black veterans—made education and housing loans available to returning veterans. This was the main creator of the white middle class.


The Hill-Burton Act (Hospital Survey and Construction Act), a federal law to improve the physical plants of the nation’s hospital systems, provided federal grants and guaranteed loans to states to build hospitals and other medical facilities. There was a “separate-but-equal” provision in the law.


The Equal Credit Opportunity Act prohibited racial discrimination in lending and required banks to collect the racial data of applicants approved and denied for home loans. Despite the appearance of racial equity, banks refused to collect racial data (leading to a court case in 1976 to force the Home Loan Bank Board and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to collect racial data, which it stopped doing when the court order ran out in 1981).


Higginbotham, A. Leon, Jr. In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Katznelson, Ira. When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. New York: W. W. Norton, 2005.

Kendi, Ibram X. Stamped from the Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America. New York: Bold Type Books, 2016.

Library of Congress. “Main Reading Room Research Guides: The Constitution of the United States.”

Library of Congress. “Main Reading Room Research Guides: 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.”

Library of Congress. “Main Reading Room Research Guides: 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.”

Library of Congress. “Main Reading Room Research Guides: 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.”

Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.

Lui, Meizhu, Barbara Robles, Betsy Leondar-Wright, Rose Brewer, and Rebecca Adamson. The Color of Wealth: The Story behind the U.S. Racial Wealth Divide. New York: New Press, 2006.

National Archives and Records Administration. “Exhibits: The Emancipation Proclamation.”

Racial Equity Institute. “Racial Equity Workshop Phase 1: Foundations in Historical and Institutional Racism,” workshop handout.

Roediger, David. Working toward Whiteness. New York: Basic Books, 2005.

Appendix 2

Sample Equity and Inclusion Group Programming

As we say above, making workplace culture more equitable is a long and challenging process. Having the support, time, and space of a workplace equity and inclusion group can make a tremendous difference. Equity and inclusion groups can sponsor book studies, film screenings, training sessions, and discussions. Ideally, they can make recommendations to management, influence policies, and even direct an organization’s strategic vision. You might also consider joining a committee through a professional organization such as the Association of University Presses or the Society for Scholarly Publishing.

The American Society of Civil Engineers


  • Diversity Day, celebrated around the UNESCO-designated World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development

  • YOUnique, a day to celebrate the unique talents of our colleagues

  • Short Story Club, where employees choose and read a short story to discuss with colleagues

  • REELTalk, where employees view and discuss a short film


  • Representative from Alcoholics Anonymous

  • Representative from the National Association on Mental Illness

  • Representative from employee assistance program

  • Representative from county police department


  • Microaggressions

  • Implicit bias

  • Working styles

  • Online accessibility

Other Activities

  • Maintaining a diversity and inclusion library

  • Presenting videos on televisions in common spaces, e.g., Black history makers, thirty rules of dignity and respect, holidays from around the world, transgender awareness month

  • Posting a monthly cultural calendar on the staff intranet and highlighting lesser known holidays

  • Labeling food at staff events as kosher, vegan, halal, etc.

  • Developing a project with employee participation based on Humans of New York (

Duke University Press

Book Discussions

  • Between the World and Me, by Ta-Nehisi Coates

  • Citizen, by Claudia Rankine

  • Algorithms of Oppression, by Safiya Umoja Noble

  • Bad Feminist, by Roxane Gay

  • White Fragility, by Robin DiAngelo (three-part discussion)



  • Bystander intervention

  • Implicit bias

  • Gender and sexuality equity

  • Trans 101

  • Disability and accessibility

Additional Activities

  • Created a list of places to advertise open positions to ensure they reach potential BIPOC applicants (e.g., HBCU career boards, professional organizations for BIPOCs in certain fields)

  • Presence at career fair at local HBCUs

  • Presence at university’s Coming Out Day

  • Provided funds for staff to attend a two-day racial equity training workshop led by trainers from the Racial Equity Institute (REI) in Greensboro

  • Developed a list of training resources

  • Developed a mentorship program

  • Funded a coffee break program allowing staff to invite colleagues to a local coffee shop to discuss their career path

Princeton University Press

Book Discussions

  • Algorithms of Oppression, by Safiya Umoja Noble (all-staff book read and visit with Noble)


  • I Am Not Your Negro, dir. Raoul Peck, based on an essay by James Baldwin, with a discussion facilitated by Ruha Benjamin

  • RBG, dir. Betsy West and Julie Cohen

  • Persepolis, dir. Marjane Satrapi and Vincent Paronnaud


  • Dan-El Padilla Peralta, on the experiences of undocumented persons


  • Cornell Interactive Theater Ensemble “Your Story, My Story” Training

  • Cornell Interactive Theater Ensemble Listen, Affirm, Respond, and Ask Questions (LARA) training for managers

  • Cornell Interactive Theater Ensemble antibias training for hiring managers

  • The Equity Paradigm antiracism training

  • Bystander and antiharassment training created and mandated annually

  • Wellness training

  • Financial wellness training

Additional Activities

  • Created chief of staff role with dedicated equity and inclusion responsibilities

  • Created code of conduct

  • Revised mission statement to include global equity

  • Established Global Equity Grants. Authors under contract who self-identify as an individual from an underrepresented group can apply for support ($1,500 to $7,500). Categories of support include parental/family care, travel funds for research or to attend conferences, illustration or permissions expenses, developmental editing, translation, proposal or manuscript workshops, supplemental advertising or marketing, and media coaching. See

  • Aligned leadership team with staff demographics for gender

  • Introduced student loan repayment

  • Attended career fairs focusing on a broadened pool of potential applicants

  • Diversified our network for recruitment by advertising job openings beyond publishing- and academic-specific resources. Jobs are posted to general job boards as well as job boards specific to underrepresented groups.

  • Expanded community outreach to underprivileged students

  • Increased assistant salaries by 15 percent over two years

  • Introduced annual outside compensation analysis for equity

  • Brought an equity lens to our internship program, establishing paid internships with a housing allowance, expanding recruiting, revamping the job posting with more intentional and inclusive language, and developing guidelines, resources, and a mandatory information session for intern supervisors on more equitable hiring practices

  • Collaborated with Princeton University Administrative Fellows to research gender balance of publications list and pipeline

  • Developed guidelines for editorial on achieving greater diversity in commissioning, campus visits, and peer review

University of Wisconsin Press


  • The Toni Morrison Book Club, by Juda Bennett, Winnifred Brown-Glaude, Cassandra Jackson, and Piper Kendrix Williams


  • Thirteenth, dir. Ava DuVernay

  • Bias, dir. Robin Hauser Reynolds

  • “Power in Numbers: Data-Driven Decision Making for Inclusive Education,” UW Diversity Forum keynote address by Talithia Williams

  • “Diversity and Inclusion in Peer Review,” AUPresses webinar by Christie Henry, Emily Taylor, and Clark Whitehorn

  • I Am Not Your Negro, dir. Raoul Peck, based on an essay by James Baldwin

  • “Toward an Ethic of Social Justice in Information,” SSP 2018 keynote address by Safiya Umoja Noble,

  • “Transforming Scholarly Publishing through an Equity and Anti-Racism Framework,” AUPresses 2019 presentation by Gisela Fosado, Melanie Morrison, and Cathy Rimer-Surles,


  • Implicit bias

Additional Activities

  • Regular brownbag lunch discussions around inclusion issues

  • Discussion of a report on the history of the Ku Klux Klan at UW Madison

Appendix 3

Sample List of Affinity and Inclusivity Groups within Our Industry

The publishers below volunteered to share with us a list of the affinity and inclusivity groups their organization offers. Current as of February 2020.

American Society of Civil Engineers

  • Diversity and inclusion council

  • Social action

  • Mentoring

  • Health and wellness

  • Employee recognition awards


  • Wellbeing

  • LGBT+

  • Women at BMJ

  • Cultural inclusion

  • Carers cafe

  • Across generations

  • Diversity and inclusion steering group

Duke University Press

  • Equity and inclusion group with several working groups:

    • Mentorship

    • Queer and trans inclusion

    • Training resources

    • Vision statement

Princeton University Press

  • Equity and inclusion committee

  • Community building committee and book club

  • People of color

  • Work-life integration

  • Mentorship

Sage UK

  • Diversity and inclusion steering group

  • Employee support groups (e.g., LGBTQ; Black, Asian, Minority Ethnic [BAME])

  • Mentoring program

  • Employee consultative group

  • Connect group (social and charity group)

Appendix 4

One important thing that aspiring allies can do to increase their awareness and effectiveness is to attend an in-depth antiracism workshop focusing on the historical development of systemic and institutionalized racism. The following recommended organizations provide high-quality training opportunities.

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